The thyroid is a component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, which is responsible for maintaining normal levels of thyroid hormones. Thyroid disease or dysfunction may result from structural or functional abnormalities along any part of this complex network. This chapter presents epidemiological data on the following thyroid conditions: thyroid nodules and goiter; hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism; thyroiditis; autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis); and iodine deficiency— hereinafter collectively referred to as thyroid disease.

Thyroid at a Glance


Suggested citation:  Endocrine Society. Endocrine Facts and Figures: Thyroid. First Edition. 2015


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